Whole(some) in one: The assessment and management of risks from re-use of treated sewage effluent, an approach developed for irrigation of a golf course in England: PAPER & PRESENTATION

Daisy Allen (nee Pinn), Senior Consultant, & Ayash Anwar,  Water Process Engineer, WRc, UK


The board of a prestigious golf club identified that secondary treated wastewater could be pumped from an adjacent major water utility site for golf course irrigation. Drivers included drought resilience and wider environmental targets. WRc were contracted to review lake water data and requirements for imported recycled wastewater. The aim was to establish a robust risk-assessment methodology to protect the public, golfers, and grounds staff from pathogens and to avoid adverse impacts on the turf quality from the application of recycled water through irrigation. A comparison of treated wastewater with lake water highlighted several chemical parameters of interest. Using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) log10 removal requirements of the treatment chain were estimated for pathogenic viruses (≥7), bacteria (≥5), and protozoan parasites (≥4). Results enabled high-level optioneering for further treatment of the recycled wastewater. This case study and methodology would be of interest to industry stakeholders keen to explore direct non-potable wastewater re-use.

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