Two stage vertical flow constructed wetlands’ performance and maturing in temperate climate: PRESENTATION ONLY

Khomenko, O.1, Blanco, I.2, Cook, A.2, Cunliffe, D.2, Dotro, G. 1, Jefferson, B.1, Coulon F. 1, Jordan, T.2, Shepherd, R.2, Smith, R.2, and Bajón Fernández, Y1*. 1Cranfield University, UK, 2Severn Trent Water, Coventry, UK



1. Passive system can meet permit. Aeration can meet tighter ammonia consents
2. Minimal intervention after commissioning
3. Sludge layer has great impact in HC & mineralisation is critical
4. Control of hydraulic loading in young systems
a) Protect bed at rest (re-oxygenation and mineralisation)
b) Resting time changed after 3 years (14 days -> 7 days)
5. Commissioning time ca. 2 years. Could be accelerated (hydraulics)

Demonstrated effective treatment.  Very promising technology for future UK implementation


1. Aspiration to operate with passive aeration
2. Engineering sludge layer to sustain hydraulic conductivity
3. Societal value

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