Solar Radiation – Driver of Innovations in Pond Design and Process Technologies

K-U. Rudolph1*, S. Weil2, L. Fuchs3

1CEEM – Prof. Rudolph GmbH, Alfred-Herrhausen-Str. 44, 58455 Witten, Germany; 2IEEM gGmbH at University of Witten-Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Str. 44, 58455 Witten, Germany; 3FUCHS Enprotec GmbH, Stocktal 2, 56727 Mayen, Germany


The article describes how solar radiation can be introduced as process dimensioning parameter in wastewater pond process design, constructions and operations. The authors experiences from pilot plants at technical scale and case studies from Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania illustrate, how solar radiation can be applied in practice as driver of innovations in pond design and process technologies, wherein hybrid (e. g. symbiotic algae bacteria ponds) and combined process technologies (e. g. post-filtration) are of growing importance

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