Biogas Technologies For Power Generation From Industrial Solid Wastes – Operational Experiences And Research Perspectives

Shanmugam, P. and Horan, N.J.
University of Leeds


Biomethanization for power generation from industrial and municipal solid waste has become one of the important renewable
sources of energy, in addition to its role in curtailing the emission of greenhouse gases, and preventing ground water
contamination. The clean developing mechanism (CDM) option encourages developing countries to produce clean energy
from the solid and liquid wastes from industries and municipalities, to achieve the desired Certified Carbon Emission Ratings
(CERs) from biogas plants as outlined in the Kyoto Protocol. There are number of biogas plants under operation in Germany,
Austria, France and Netherlands for power generation from industrial and municipal, and agricultural solid wastes. There are
also a number of such plants in India operating on leather and slaughter house wastes. Three biogas plants are being
operated for power generation including a 5 Metric T biogas plant for tannery fleshing with primary sludge, 60MT biogas plant
for slaughter house solid wastes, and 2MT biogas plant for chromed leather solid waste. They generate 1200kWh/d,
4800kWh/d, and 400kWh/d respectively and the pay back period was calculated to be 15, 5, and 5 years respectively. The
mixing and automation of these technologies are the interesting features. The average specific biogas and electricity was
0.75 to 0.9 m3/kg of volatile solids eliminated and 1.89kWh/m3 of biogas consumed with a CH4 composition of 65% and
calorific value of 5440 kCal/m3. The advancement of each technology with its engineering design and operation
characteristics, performance efficiency, pay back period and CO2 mitigation strategies is considered in this paper.

Biomethenization, bioenergy, specific energy generation, duel fuel and gas engines, hydrolyser and methaniser, gas-liquid
and solid separator

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